The first thing I noted about Android content providers that they support synchronization. This fact has huge implications and shows, how well the Android mobile platform is designed. Synchronization is a key enabler in mobile applications but is often "engineered in" later into the platforms. This approach is about as realistic as "adding security later" to a non security-aware platform.
It is not surprising for an Android-hardened developer that synchronization does not work in the m3-rc37a release and the example program presented here is not able to accomplish any real synchronization. This statement would discourage lesser programmers but not the ones dealing with the Android platform! Decyphering the Android synchronization framework is an interesting exercise in itself even though that framework may change in the future. Key elements are already there and there are some interesting findings regarding synchronization as a service.
You can download the example program from here.
The naive observation that led me to deal with the Android synchronization framework is that the log clearly indicates a running synchronization service. The synchronization service (actually called android.content.ContentService) listens to data connection/disconnection events and logs these state changes. In order to actually activate the sync part of the service (other part of the service deals with the XMPP connection), the following steps should be taken.
- The sync part of the service must be enabled by manipulating the sync_enabled property in the settings table. This is done by calling android.provider.Settings.Gservices.putString( cr,"sync_enabled","true" ). You noticed it well: the G in Gservices refers to Google. Clearly, Android sync framework programmers considered synchronization a Google service. In order for this call to succeed, the application must have android.permission.WRITE_SETTINGS permission (check the manifest of the example program).
- Account information must be provided. Interestingly again, the service handling this logic is called GoogleLoginService. ContentService obtains account information from GoogleLoginService and if there are no accounts specified, synchronization stops. This is a bit frightening but in m3-rc37a release the account information is stored in a local SQLite table. Do the following:
INSERT INTO "accounts" VALUES(1,'user','password',1);
- The sync engine stores its settings, history and stats in a content provider under the content://sync/ tree. Strangely, this content provider is not implemented at all. The example program provides a naive implementation which is good enough to make the sync service work.
The steps necessary to make a content provider synchronizable are the following:
- The content provider must be marked as synchronizable in the manifest (again, the XML fragment is mangled because of the limitations of the blog engine):
[provider class=".SimpleStringDataProvider" android:authorities="aexp.syncexample.SimpleString"
- The content provider must be able to provide a temporary version of itself. The method signature is the following:
public ContentProvider getTemporaryInstance()
The synchronization engine manipulates the temporary instance of the content provider and changes done on the temporary content provider are merged by another method the content provider must implement:
public MergeResult merge(SyncContext context, ContentProvider diffs, boolean readOnly)
This latter method gets the temporary content provider instance after one synchronization step is finished on it and merges it with the main content provider. Meanwhile, collisions may be detected (data changed incompatibly on both sides since the last synchronization) and as a result, synchronization may even be interrupted by the user.
- And last, but not least, the synchronizable content provider must be able to return the SyncAdapter that is able to synchronize the provider.
public SyncAdapter getSyncAdapter(Context context)
The SyncAdapter instance abstracts the entire synchronization engine. The example program provides a dummy implementation.
The interaction between the sync engine and the sync adapter can be followed on the the log below:
D/SyncExample( 614): syncDB
D/SyncExample( 614): After syncDB
D/Sync ( 467): running sync operation type: 1 url: content://aexp.syncexample.SimpleString
D/ActivityThread( 467): Installing external provider aexp.syncexample.SimpleString: aexp.syncexample.SimpleStringDataProvider
D/ActivityThread( 467): Installing external provider sync: aexp.syncexample.SyncSettingsProvider
I/Sync ( 467): Starting sync for aexp.syncexample.SimpleString
D/SyncAdapterStub( 614): syncStarting
D/SyncAdapterStub( 614): isReadOnly
D/SyncAdapterStub( 614): getServerDiffs, contentProvider: aexp.syncexample.SimpleStringDataProvider@40014470
D/SIMPLESTRINGDATAPROVIDER( 614): merge, diffs: aexp.syncexample.SimpleStringDataProvider@40014470
D/SIMPLESTRINGDATAPROVIDER( 614): merge, tempContentProvider: android.content.ContentProvider$Transport@400144a0 D/SyncAdapterStub( 614): writeSyncData: aexp.syncexample.SimpleString
D/SIMPLESTRINGDATAPROVIDER( 614): merge, diffs: null
D/SyncAdapterStub( 614): syncEnding
I/Sync ( 467): Ending sync for aexp.syncexample.SimpleString
D/Sync ( 467): finished sync operation type: 1 url: content://aexp.syncexample.SimpleString
- In the first step, getServerDiffs is called on the SyncAdapter, using the temporary provider as input. In case of the timestamp-based adapter, the client-server communication must establish the timestamp at which this client and server synchronized last, send client changes after that timestamp and obtain changes from the server into the temporary provider.
- In the second step, the provider's merge method is called with the temporary provider as parameter. At this point the content provider must reconcile the client-side database with the temporary database. During the merging, collisions may be detected when the client and the server both changed a data item since the last synchronization in non-compatible way. Eventually collisions may need to be escalated to the user who may even interrupt the synchronization process.
- After this step, we have the reconciled database on the client side. The client now needs to notify the server about collision resolution and sends the client diffs one more time using the SyncAdapter's sendClientDiffs method. This step is not present in the log because our primitive synchronization example did not produce collisions.
After all this suffering, I guess, you would like to see a real synchronization session. I have to disappoint you: beside some scattered SyncML DS-related classes, I was not able to find any real sync adapter. Implementing a real synchronization engine takes a lot of time but I happen to have a SyncML-based engine implemented and I intend to put it under Android's sync framework. So stay tuned. :-)